How to audit data modifications with surgical precision

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The problem πŸ”—︎

This time a colleague from work asked how to best find a culprit that has been changing a specific cell in a table. It could be an automated process, application logic, application user or even an ad-hoc statement - we didn’t know. The table has many different access patterns, some of which are frequent. Ideally, we don’t want to monitor everything and sift through it.

We wanted to learn the who, the how and then ask why? If you like to know the whole journey, read on. Otherwise, you can skip to section Eureka moment

Possible solutions πŸ”—︎

From the top of my head, I thought of these options:

  1. SQL Audit
  2. Data mine the Query Store to find the possible access patterns
  3. Extended Events (XE) - but what should I filter?
  4. Trigger on the table + logging table

1. SQL Audit πŸ”—︎

I admit I haven’t used Audit before (I just knew of its existence), so it was an opportunity to try it out. You need to:

  • Set up a Server Audit Specification to choose the target file.
  • Set up a Database Audit Specification.
  • Select Audit Action Type, Object and Principal, and we are good to go.

Database audit specification. Update on dbo.PopularTable

On the positive side, it captures who and how.
On the negative side, it captures everything. If I have tens of thousands of modifications per hour, I have to collect everything and look for the culprit.

This wouldn’t do.

2. Data mine the Query Store πŸ”—︎

Query Store has aggregated data, so I knew I won’t be getting any specific query execution. I was here to map out all the access patterns and perhaps pass the signed query hash to Extended Events.

I didn’t have a sophisticated method, just a full-text search on sys.query_store_query_text.
I was looking for the table name along with the MERGE or UPDATE keywords.

But there were just too many hits - it would get me maybe closer, but I still wouldn’t know specifics.

3. Extended Events πŸ”—︎

At this point, there was still nothing to filter. I could grab all the query hashes I’ve got from mining the Query Store, but the update could come from a different query next time. I could collect everything and filter, but SQL Audit would do a better job.

4. Trigger πŸ”—︎

Triggers are often misused and get a bad reputation, but this is a perfectly fine use case. All I need is an AFTER UPDATE Trigger and a logging table - easy peasy. While the Trigger fires on each UPDATE, I’ll have logic inside to only log information on certain conditions.

I can use the HOST_NAME(), ORIGINAL_LOGIN() and other functions to capture the who info.

What I was missing was how? Was it an ad-hoc statement, Stored Procedure or something else? I wanted to capture the input buffer. I thought there might be a function for that but couldn’t find it.

All I needed was to query the DMVs. But that requires a VIEW SERVER STATE permission. That invalidates the Trigger, so I need to use the Module Signing. That means creating a certificate, creating a Login, etc. Which felt like a lot of work for a simple auditing task. Especially, if you do that infrequently. Or when you are new to Module Signing.

It’s a shame! I already had the who figured out. I was halfway there!

Eureka moment πŸ”—︎

Why do I have to use just one tool to finish the job? I wanted to combine the Query Store hash information with the Extended Events. I can instead combine it with the Trigger!

Within the Trigger, I have logic to filter the exact changes I’m interested in.
And with the Extended Events, I can monitor only the statement in my Trigger logic and grab all the other auditing info - especially the input buffer and the tsql stack.

Here’s a diagram:

Object relation diagram

Finally, I had both the who and how!

The proof πŸ”—︎

Let’s create a table and some data.

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS dbo.PopularTable
CREATE TABLE dbo.PopularTable
(
    Id int PRIMARY KEY
    , InterestingColumn int NOT NULL /* Monitor this column */
    , OtherColumn int NOT NULL
)

INSERT INTO dbo.PopularTable
(Id, InterestingColumn, OtherColumn)
VALUES
  (1, 0, 0)
, (2, 0, 0) /* Monitor this row */
, (3, 0, 0)

Next, I’ll create an AFTER UPDATE Trigger on this table. Inside I’ll check just updates to row with an ID = 2 and InterestingColumn. Additionally, I only want to alert when the value changes.

CREATE OR ALTER TRIGGER PopularTableUpdateInterestingColumn ON dbo.PopularTable
AFTER UPDATE
AS
BEGIN
    IF EXISTS
    (
        SELECT InterestingColumn FROM Inserted WHERE Id = 2
        EXCEPT
        SELECT InterestingColumn FROM Deleted WHERE Id = 2
    )
    BEGIN
        RETURN
    END
END

Apart from the check, the Trigger doesn’t do anything. We will set up an Extended Events session that will watch the execution of this Trigger but only the RETURN statement inside the IF - which has a query_hash_signed = 0.

CREATE EVENT SESSION [MonitorPopularTableTrigger] ON SERVER
ADD EVENT sqlserver.sp_statement_starting
(
    SET
          collect_object_name = 1
        , collect_statement = 1
    ACTION
    (
          server_instance_name
        , client_app_name
        , client_connection_id
        , client_hostname
        , query_hash_signed
        , server_principal_name
        , session_id
        , sql_text
        , tsql_stack
    )
    WHERE
        [object_name] = N'PopularTableUpdateInterestingColumn'
        AND query_hash_signed = 0
)

For your use case, you’ll want to add a file event target as well as tweak the collected actions.
In this case, Watch Live Data will do just fine.

With all the pieces arranged all that is left is some access code and test scenarios.

I’ll create a stored procedure to test the first few test cases and then use ad-hoc UPDATE and MERGE statements.

CREATE OR ALTER PROCEDURE dbo.UpdatePopularTable
(
      @Id int
    , @InterestingColumn int
    , @OtherColumn int
)
AS
BEGIN
    UPDATE dbo.PopularTable
        SET
              InterestingColumn = @InterestingColumn
            , PopularTable.OtherColumn = @OtherColumn
    WHERE Id = @Id
END

Let’s call each test in separate batches, so our monitoring sql_text is clean. Don’t forget we are only interested in row 2 InterestingColumn change.

Test case 1 πŸ”—︎

  • Change via Stored Procedure
  • Update InterestingColumn
  • Update row 1
  • Nothing should show up in XE
/* Test 1 */
EXEC dbo.UpdatePopularTable
    @Id = 1
  , @InterestingColumn = 1
  , @OtherColumn = 0

Test case 2 πŸ”—︎

  • Change via Stored Procedure
  • Update OtherColumn
  • Update row 2
  • Nothing should show up in XE
/* Test 2 */
EXEC dbo.UpdatePopularTable
    @Id = 2
  , @InterestingColumn = 0
  , @OtherColumn = 1

Test case 3 πŸ”—︎

  • Change via Stored Procedure
  • Update InterestingColumn
  • Update row 2
  • There should be a captured event
/* Test 3 */
EXEC dbo.UpdatePopularTable
    @Id = 2
  , @InterestingColumn = 1
  , @OtherColumn = 0

Test case 4 πŸ”—︎

  • Change via ad-hoc UPDATE statement
  • Update InterestingColumn
  • Update multiple rows including the row 2
  • There should be a captured event
/* Test 4 */
;WITH rowsForUpdate
AS
(
    SELECT *
    FROM dbo.PopularTable
    WHERE Id BETWEEN 2 AND 3
)
UPDATE rowsForUpdate
SET
    InterestingColumn = 2

Test case 5 πŸ”—︎

  • Change via ad-hoc MERGE statement
  • Update InterestingColumn
  • Update row 2
  • Insert additional row - to justify MERGE over UPDATE
  • There should be a captured event
/* Test 5 */
MERGE INTO dbo.PopularTable AS tgt
USING
(
    VALUES
      (2, 3, 0)
    , (5, 0, 1)
) AS src (Id, ic, oc)
    ON tgt.Id = src.Id
WHEN MATCHED THEN
    UPDATE SET tgt.InterestingColumn = src.ic
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
    INSERT (Id, InterestingColumn, OtherColumn)
    VALUES
    (src.Id, src.ic, src.oc);

Results πŸ”—︎

As expected - the first two tests resulted in no event captured. The other three are there with their respective sql_text. Extended Events showing tests 3, 4 and 5

Get alerted on new events πŸ”—︎

Now, this is well beyond the scope of this article, but you can use dbatools Powershell module to automate alerting. You can tweak this snippet to add a smart target to our existing XE session, and you’ll get an email notification on the next event.

$params = @{
    SmtpServer = "YourSmtp"
    To = "[email protected]"
    Sender = "[email protected]"
    Subject = "PopularTable Trigger fired on {server_instance_name}"
    Body = "
    Timestamp: {collection_time}
    Client Application name: {client_app_name}
    Hostname: {client_hostname}
    Login {server_principal_name}
    Text: {sql_text}
    Stack: {tsql_stack}
    "
}

$emailresponse = New-DbaXESmartEmail @params
Start-DbaXESmartTarget -SqlInstance 'YourInstance' -Session 'MonitorPopularTableTrigger' -Responder $emailresponse

# Clean up all smart targets with Get-DbaXESmartTarget | Remove-DbaXESmartTarget